It is not known precisely when or where Homo sapiens, the biological species of conscious, thinking creatures, emerged. As the search for our prehistoric origins continues, the early innovations of our ancestors have been pushed back further in time. It is believed that we evolved from a species that lived in the southern part of Africa. These early hominids ventured out onto the grassy plains and into caves as the forests in that part of the world slowly disappeared. In the tall grass, the hominids began to stand erect. Perhaps this adaptation was a result of the need to watch for predators, to help discourage enemies by increasing the hominids’ apparent size, or to hold branches as weapons.
- thinking creature 能思考的物种 |人种
- Homo sapiens 智人
- It is believed that 据说 普遍认为……
- ventured out 冒着危险出来
- predator 食肉动物 肉食动物
- watch for 密切注意;戒备;提防 If you watch for something or watch out for it, you pay attention so that you notice it, either because you do not want to miss it or because you want to avoid it.
- hominids 人种；人科
In any event, the hand developed an ability to carry food and hold objects. Found near Lake Turkana in Kenya, a nearly three-million-year-old stone that had been sharpened into an implement proves the thoughtful and deliberate development of a technology—a tool. Early shaped stones may have been used to dig for roots or to cut away flesh from dead animals for food. While we can only speculate about the use of early tools, we know that they mark a major step in the human species’ immense journey from primitive origins toward a civilized state.
- 沉思的;默想的;认真思考的 If you are thoughtful, you are quiet and serious because you are thinking about something.
- 体贴入微的;考虑周到的 If you describe someone as thoughtful, you approve of them because they remember what other people want, need, or feel, and try not to upset them.
- (书籍、电影、讲话等)严肃的，思想性强的 If you describe something such as a book, film, or speech as thoughtful, you mean that it is serious and well thought out.
- 从容的;不慌不忙的;审慎的;小心翼翼的 If a movement or action is deliberate, it is done slowly and carefully
- （尤指作出重大决定前）慎重考虑，仔细思考 If you deliberate, you think about something carefully, especially before making a very important decision.
Lake Turkana 图尔卡纳湖(Lake Turkana)位于肯尼亚北部，与埃塞俄比亚边境相连。它是东非大裂谷和肯尼亚最大的内陆湖，也是世界上最大的碱性湖泊。东非第四大湖泊。
A number of quantum leaps provided the capacity to organize a community and gain some measure of control over human destiny. Speech—the ability to make sounds in order to communicate—was an early skill developed by the species on the long evolutionary trail from its archaic beginnings. Writing is the visual counterpart of speech. Marks, symbols, pictures, or letters drawn or written upon a surface or substrate became a graphic counterpart of the spoken word or unspoken thought. The limitations of speech include the fallibility of human memory and an immediacy of expression that cannot transcend time and place. Until the electronic age, spoken words vanished without a trace, while written words remained. The invention of writing brought people the luster of civilization and made it possible to preserve hard-won knowledge, experiences, and thoughts.
quantum leap n.量子跃迁，<喻>跃进，巨大突破
measure 措施 方法
archaic 古代的 原始的
primitive communes 原始社会
fallibility 易错的 不可靠 可能会出错的
luster 光泽 荣耀
The development of writing and visible language had its earliest origins in simple pictures, for a close connection exists between the drawing of pictures and the marking of writing. Both are natural ways of communicating ideas, and early people used pictures as an elementary way to record and transmit information.
visible language 可见的语言；视觉文字，
This made writing easier ,and it made the pictographs less literal
literal 照字面意思的 原意的 逐字的 n.. [印]错排，文字上的错误
- the characters were now composed of a series of wedgeshaped strokes rather than a continous line drawing this innovation radically altered the nature of the writing .pictographs evolved into an abstract sign writing called cuneiform(from the Latin for wedgeshaped)
be composed of 由……构成
character 性格 品行 文字 汉字
radically =totally完全地 彻底地
Code of Hammurabi 汉谟拉比法典
inscription 题词 碑文
- Writing enabled society to stabilize itself under the rule of law . measurements and weights were standardized and guranteed by writen inscription